Tuesday, 1 May 2012


(Helpful for the Competitive Exams)

 You Want To See Your Future?
See Here!

Take hold of the future or the future will take hold of you.
"The trouble with the future is that it's so much less knowable than the past."
               Philosopher (Observer)                 Light cone in 2D space plus a time dimension.

Monday, 30 April 2012

We can achieve

Civil Services..... We can achieve…. The Tips
Dr.G.T. Kumaragururajan MBBS, PhD
Medical officer, Corporation of Chennai 
                                                                                                                               and Civil service aspirant
(Went up to Interview level both in UPSC and TNPSC).

From time immemorial, every man's aim was to exercise control over his dominion of authority. It was the singular imperial effort of Europeans and Arabs that led to the colonial expansion and later exploitation of the hitherto third world countries. This uncontrolled exercise of imperial authority led to large scale devastation and exploitation in the form of war and armed rebellion against the rulers by the ruled. The age that followed was no different. Many futile attempts were later made to streamline such indiscriminate exercise of power. In India, the Britishers enjoyed enormous and unfettered powers in multivarious disciplines and it was a long fought struggle before indianisation of superior civil services was introduced.
Civil services in India remained largely at the mercy of British lords till the idea of establishment of public services commission was suggested by the Montague Chelmsford report which reflected in the Govt. of India act of 1919. The first public service commission was set up on 1st October 1926. Later the Federal Public Service Commission was established under the Government of India Act 1935.
Ever since India attained independence, the Federal Public Service Commission was rechristened to be called as Union Public Service Commission (UPSC). UPSC is the supreme constitutional authority to recruit civil servants. It is extremely autonomous body of experts chosen from amongst persons with remarkable integrity and long standing experience in the faculty of administration at various levels of the hierarchy. Consequently state public service commissions and provincial public service commissions were established.
Why civil services…..?
Many of us may think as to why people are interested in studying civil services. In fact it is the only platform in which a person may, in an overnight’s time, improve upon his present position drastically to insurmountable heights. An IAS or an IPS officer command so much respect in the society and  often people regard it as an extremely difficult task to become one and that it requires lots of monetary and muscle power. In reality, it is not so. In fact it is the one of the few instances where systematic hard work succeeds irrespective of the social and economic status. Civil servants have this extremely rare opportunity to work in such a situation where responsibility commensurate with the authority, channelizing the entire process leading to public welfare and sustainable development.
System of examination …..
UPSC conducts the examination for civil services in three phases as Preliminary examination, Main examination and Interview. Preliminary examination is basically with multiple choice questions which have two papers namely a compulsory general studies paper and one optional paper. There is negative marking for both GS and optional paper. Main examination involves theory type questions containing short answers and long answers .Here there are two optional subjects, GS papers and essay paper apart from two qualifying papers. Interview is held by various boards constituted by UPSC from time to time, headed by its members.
How to go about it…..?
Preparation for this highly coveted service requires extremely careful planning and systematic hard work right from the beginning. First, one has to make up the mind as to whether he wants to become a civil servant. This is an extremely important step because, the entire array of events namely preparation, examination and the time component involved must be borne in mind. It is a relatively time consuming process and requires lots of perseverance and the quality of perseverance in itself is a “trade mark” feature of a civil servant.
The next important step is to when to start preparing and how to prepare. Always we say earlier, the better! Preparation and background work must start by the second year of graduation at least. The candidate must cultivate of habit of accalamitasation to the habit of preparation. Guidance from seniors who were successful or who are on the road to success may go a long way in the preparation.
Last but not the least is the careful selection of optional subjects. The choice of optional subjects varies with both the individual and also the period in which the candidate appears for the examination. Usually a candidate chooses his subject of study in undegraduation or post graduation as his optional subject. But this choice can also be made according to the ability of the candidate to understand and grasp the subject and the most preferred optional during the period of examination.
Thus civil services is one of the most sought after career for lakhs and lakhs of prospective aspirants who wish to improve upon their status in a relatively short span of time and at the same time gain the rare opportunity to formulate policies that govern our country and participate in the most crucial part of public welfare.
So folks go ahead! Choose civil services as your career! Serve the public interest and protect the national trust. Jai hind!!!

Why Youth?

Throughout history, young people have played an active role in shaping major social and political advancements. Today’s growing globalization and cross-border movements create an environment which is increasingly diverse in terms of culture and religion. Young people’s contribution to understanding the impact of this diversity on everyday life as well as politics is now more crucial than ever. Moreover, as they constitute the largest segment of population in many regions, the role of youth in shaping their country’s response to cultural and religious diversity is vital. 
The UNAOC clearly sees youth as an essential asset – a crucial pool of talent, ideas and energy – that plays a critical role in addressing the challenges related to global and local instability. Young people are crucial actors in advancing the work of the UNAOC as they are the principle stakeholders of societies that are increasingly free from stereotypes, discrimination and extremism. The UNAOC believes it is important to recognize young people’s own contribution to promoting respect and understanding and fostering dialogue among people of different backgrounds. 
In sum, youth constitute the true basis of the sustainability and impact of the Alliance’s work.

A little story about a Mexican fisherman illustrates success in a simple life well lived.

The businessman was at the pier of a small coastal Mexican village when a small boat with just one fisherman docked. Inside the small boat were several large yellowfin tuna. The businessman complimented the Mexican on the quality of his fish and asked how long it took to catch them. The Mexican replied only a little while.

The businessman then asked why he didn't stay out longer and catch more fish? The Mexican said he had enough to support his family's immediate needs. The businessman then asked, but what do you do with the rest of your time? The Mexican fisherman said, "I sleep late, fish a little, play with my children, take a siesta with my wife, Maria, stroll into the village each evening where I sip wine and play guitar with my amigos; I have a full and busy life, señor."

The businessman scoffed, "I am a Harvard MBA and I could help you. You should spend more time fishing and with the proceeds buy a bigger boat. With the proceeds from the bigger boat you could buy several boats; eventually you would have a fleet of fishing boats. Instead of selling your catch to a middleman, you would sell directly to the processor and eventually open your own cannery. You would control the product, processing and distribution. You would need to leave this small coastal fishing village and move to Mexico City, then LA and eventually New York City where you would run your expanding enterprise."

The Mexican fisherman asked, "But señor, how long will this all take?" To which the businessman replied, "15-20 years." "But what then, señor?" The businessman laughed and said, "That's the best part! When the time is right you would announce an IPO and sell your company stock to the public and become very rich. You would make millions." "Millions, señor? Then what?" The businessman said, "Then you would retire. Move to a small coastal fishing village where you would sleep late, fish a little, play with your kids, take a siesta with your wife, stroll to the village in the evenings where you could sip wine and play your guitar with your amigos."

The fisherman, still smiling, looked up and said, "Isn't that what I'm doing right now?"

Researchers Can Predict Future Actions from Human Brain Activity

Brain research predicts premeditated actions
Bringing the real world into the brain scanner, researchers at The University of Western Ontario from The Centre for Brain and Mind can now determine the action a person was planning, mere moments before that action is actually executed.
The findings were published this week in the prestigious Journal ofNeuroscience, in the paper, “Decoding Action Intentions from Preparatory Brain Activity in Human Parieto-Frontal Networks.”
“This is a considerable step forward in our understanding of how the human brain plans actions,” says Jason Gallivan, a Western Neuroscience PhD student, who was the first author on the paper.
Over the course of the one-year study, human subjects had their brain activity scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while they performed one of three hand movements: grasping the top of an object, grasping the bottom of the object, or simply reaching out and touching the object. The team found that by using the signals from many brain regions, they could predict, better than chance, which of the actions the volunteer was merely intending to do, seconds later.
“Neuroimaging allows us to look at how action planning unfolds within human brain areas without having to insert electrodes directly into the human brain. This is obviously far less intrusive,” explains Western Psychology professor Jody Culham, who was the paper’s senior author.
Gallivan says the new findings could also have important clinical implications.
“Being able to predict a human’s desired movements using brain signals takes us one step closer to using those signals to control prosthetic limbs in movement-impaired patient populations, like those who suffer from spinal cord injuries or locked-in syndrome,” says Gallivan.
Notes about this brain research article
This research is funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR). A past recipient of the CIHR Brain Star Award, Gallivan is funded by a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) graduate scholarship.
Contact: Jeff Renaud – The University of Western Ontario
Video Source: Research on Predicting Future Actions on YouTube by The University of Western Ontario.
Image Source: Neuroscience News image adapted from video by The University of Western Ontario

A subject ungergoes an fMRI in an experiment where researchers try to use brain scans to predict future actions. Image adapted from video by The University of Western Ontario.

Can Future Actions Influence Past Events? 

Experiment Mimics Quantum Physics 

'Spooky Action Into the Past'

ScienceDaily (Apr. 23, 2012) — Physicists led by Prof. Anton Zeilinger at the Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information (IQOQI), the University of Vienna, and the Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology (VCQ) have, for the first time, demonstrated in an experiment that the decision whether two particles were in an entangled or in a separable quantum state can be made even after these particles have been measured and may no longer exist.

Their results will be published this week in the journal Nature Physics.
Entangled States
According to the Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger, entanglement is the characteristic trait of quantum mechanics. In addition to its crucial role for the foundations of physics, entanglement is also a key resource for upcoming quantum information technologies such as quantum cryptography and quantum computation. Entangled particles exhibit correlations which are stronger and more intricate than those allowed by the laws of classical physics. If two particles are in an entangled quantum state, they have perfectly defined joint properties at the expense of losing their individual properties. This is like having two dice which have no orientation until they are subject to measurement, upon which they certainly show the same (random) side up. In contrast, so-called separable quantum states allow for a classical description, because every particle has well-defined properties on its own. Two dice, each one of them with its own well-defined orientation, are in a separable state. Now, one would think that at least the nature of the quantum state must be an objective fact of reality. Either the dice are entangled or not. Zeilinger's team has now demonstrated in an experiment that this is not always the case.

This abstract illustration shows four particles of light can be produced and manipulated in such a way that one can later decide in which quantum state two of the particles have been. (Credit: Jon Heras, Equinox Graphics Ltd.)

Exciting realization of a "Gedankenexperiment"
The authors experimentally realized a "Gedankenexperiment" called "delayed-choice entanglement swapping," formulated by Asher Peres in the year 2000. Two pairs of entangled photons are produced, and one photon from each pair is sent to a party called Victor. Of the two remaining photons, one photon is sent to the party Alice and one is sent to the party Bob. Victor can now choose between two kinds of measurements. If he decides to measure his two photons in a way such that they are forced to be in an entangled state, then also Alice's and Bob's photon pair becomes entangled. If Victor chooses to measure his particles individually, Alice's and Bob's photon pair ends up in a separable state. Modern quantum optics technology allowed the team to delay Victor's choice and measurement with respect to the measurements which Alice and Bob perform on their photons.
"We found that whether Alice's and Bob's photons are entangled and show quantum correlations or are separable and show classical correlations can be decided after they have been measured," explains Xiao-song Ma, lead author of the study.
According to the famous words of Albert Einstein, the effects of quantum entanglement appear as "spooky action at a distance." The recent experiment has gone one remarkable step further. "Within a naïve classical word view, quantum mechanics can even mimic an influence of future actions on past events," says Anton Zeilinger.

Story Source:
The above story is reprinted from materials provided byUniversity of Vienna, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.
Note: Materials may be edited for content and length. For further information, please contact the source cited above.

Journal Reference:
  1. Xiao-song Ma, Stefan Zotter, Johannes Kofler, Rupert Ursin, Thomas Jennewein, Časlav Brukner, Anton Zeilinger.Experimental delayed-choice entanglement swapping.Nature Physics, 2012; DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS2294

Future Actions Dialogue
An International Climate Treaty for Post-2012
World leaders have begun negotiations on the post-2012 international climate change agreement, and CCAP is engaged in these discussions through its Future Actions Dialogue (FAD). The FAD brings together senior climate change negotiators worldwide from 30-40 developed and developing countries for an open and inclusive discussion of producing practical options for a post-2012 international climate agreement.
Partners and Stakeholders
Participants meet twice a year to listen to and comment on the views of climate experts and colleagues representing diverse viewpoints. Interim discussions are held on specific topics via workgroups. During the past five years, partners have included participants from the United Kingdom, Belgium, the Netherlands, South Korea, Sweden, Mexico, Japan, China, South Africa, Norway, Peru, France, Brazil, Australia, Chile, Argentina and Canada.
Program Goals and Objectives
The FAD combines the following elements to help advance the negotiations for a post-2012 international agreement:
  • In-depth analysis and working papers that identify, elaborate and outline options for designing climate change mitigation actions by industrialized and developing countries;
  • Outreach to key policy-makers to broaden the network of countries and individuals that understand the options discussed within the dialogue and contribute to the design of post-2012 options;
  • Broaden the global understanding of options for a coordinated action on climate change mitigation, sustainable development and poverty alleviation in both developed and developing countries;
  • Develop concrete, practical and field-tested options for future policy development; and
  • Leverage and coordinate financial resources from a leading group of developed countries to build open communication and trust among developed and developing nations, and to support the development of future climate change actions.